Publications of 1998-99 on START 2 Treaty Related IssuesThe most recent publications related to this section can be found at the news page
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START 2: Events
- Presidents Clinton and Yeltsin met on June 20, 1999 in Cologne and discussed, among other matters START II, III and the ABM Treaty. The two leaders have agreed "that they remain committed to START II," including the implementation of the 1997 START II and ABM protocols. Clinton and Yeltsin also "agreed that they will resume discussions on START III and on the ABM Treaty in the fall." See: Joint Statement Between The United States and The Russian Federation Concerning Strategic Offensive And Defensive Arms And Further Strengthening Of Stability, June 20, 1999.
- On Monday, March 22, 1999, President Boris Yeltsin submitted to the State Duma a new Federal Bill on Ratification of the Treaty Between The Russian Federation and the United States of America On Further Reduction And Limitation Of Strategic Offensive Arms. However, the chances that the State Duma ratifies the START II Treaty were lost, as NATO bombers continued attacks on Yugoslavia. The details - in exclusive comment (- in Russian), by Pyotr Romashkin (the Staff of the "Yabloko" Faction in the State Duma), March 23, 1999.
- A Draft Federal Bill on Ratification of the Treaty Between The Russian Federation and the United States of America On Further Reduction And Limitation Of Strategic Offensive Arms, was prepared in early December, 1998 in the Duma and supposed to be coordinated with the president's administration. However, the missile attacks on Iraq seem to have completely undermined all the efforts of the Russian supporters of the START II Treaty (The World is Split Again - in Russian, by Yulia Petrovskaya and Aleksander Reutov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, December 18, p.1).
- On April 13, President Boris Yeltsin submitted an amended version of the long-stalled START II arms control treaty to the State Duma (Yeltsin Gives Duma Amended Version of START II Arms Treaty Chicago Tribune, April 14, 1998; Yeltsin Resubmits Amended Version of Start II Treaty Duma, U.S. Department of State Daily Press Briefing, Monday, April 13, 1998)
- On September 26, 1997, U.S. Secretary of the State and Russia's Foreign Minister signed a package of documents on START 2 related issues. U.S., Russia Reaffirm Nuclear Pact. Leaders Sign Accords to Preserve ABM Treaty and Boost START II (by John M. Goshko, The Washington Post , September 27, 1997, Page A16); Russia, U.S. Sign Key Arms-Control Agreement (CNN report, September 26, 1997).
- On September 16, 1997, foreign minister Yevgeni Primakov and minister of defense Igor Sergeyev met with members of the State Duma to discuss the problems of START-2 ratification. See: The MoD Has Made an Unsuccessful Attempt to Persuade Duma Members (by Andrey Korbut, September 17, 1997, Nezavisimaya Gazeta), Kremlin Seeks Parliament's Ratification of START 2 (Russia Today, September 17, 1997); Russian Hard-Liners Slam START II (Associated Press, September 16, 1997; 8:43 p.m. EDT);Will the Duma Ratify START 2? The True Answer is Given by Communists, by Alexander Goltz, Yadernaya Bezopasnost, #4-5, September-October, 1997.
- On March 21,1997, a joint statement on parameters on future reductions was signed by U.S. and Russia's presidents in Helsinki.
- On January, 26, 1996, the U.S. Senate approved START 2 for ratification.
- On June 20, 1995, START 2 Treaty was submitted by president Boris Yeltsin to the Federal Assembly of Russia for consideration.
- START 2 Treaty was signed by presidents George Bush and Boris Yeltsin on January 3, 1993.
START 2: Analysis
- The Rise and Fall of START II: The Russian View, (by Alexander Pikayev, Carnegie Endowment Working Papers series, September 1999)
- START II Treaty And Future Of Russian Strategic Forces, (edited by A.I. Podberyozkin, All-Russian Socio-Political Movement "Spiritual Heritage" and "RAU-Corporation", Moscow, 1999)
- Disarmament and Security. 1997-1998. Russia and International Arms Control System: Development or Decay? (by A.G. Arbatov, O.N. Bykov, A.N. Kalyadin, etc. - M.:, Nauka, 1997, 303 p.)
- Russia's Approach to Deep Reductions of Nuclear Weapons: Opportunities and Problems (by Nikolai N. Sokov, The Henry L. Stimson Center, Occasional Paper #27, September 1997).
- Nuclear Armaments and Security of Russia. (Ed. by A.G. Arbatov, D.of Historical Sciences, RAN IMEMO, The Center for Geopolitical and Military Forecasts, Moscow, 1997).
- START 2 Ratification: Solutions, Problems, Prospects. (Ed. by A.I. Podberyozkin, D.of Historical Sciences, All-Russian Socio-Political Movement "Spiritual Heritage", Moscow, 1996).
- Nuclear Factor in the Current World. (Ed. by V.I. Krivohizha, Moscow, Russian Institute for Strategic Studies, 1996).
START 2: Opinions section has moved here
Steps Toward START 3 and Deeper Cuts of Nuclear Arsenals
- START III: Expectations And Anxiety, (by Ivan Safranchuk, Yadernaya Bezopasnost', October-November 1999, pp.1, 3)
- Significant Decisions. START II And START III Treaties Do Not Solve The Problems Of Strategic Stability By Themselves, - in Russian, (by Lev Volkov, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, N 38, October 1-7, 1999)
- To Meet START III, (by Gennadi Obolenski, Yadernaya Bezopasnost, N 27-28, August-September, 1999, p. 13)
- Nuclear Turning Point: A Blueprint for Deep Cuts and De-Alerting of Nuclear Weapons, (by Harold A. Feiveson, Editor, The Brookings Institution, July 10, 1999).
- Searching For An Exit From The Dead-end: Strategic Arms Reductions And The ABM Treaty, (by Anatoly Diakov and Paul Podvig, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye NG, N 25, July 2-8, 1999, p. 1,2). See also Our Comment: On Irresponsibility, (in Russian), March 24, 1999
- Clinton-Yeltsin Summit Agreements On Arms Control: A Beginning, But A Conclusion Needed, By John Isaacs, Council for a Livable World, June 23, 1999)
- Invitation to Nuclear Disaster, (by Michael Krepon, The Washington Post, Tuesday, May 25, 1999; Page A15)
- Stuck at START: U.S. Forced to Maintain its Nuclear Arsenal while Russia's Declines, (Coalition To Reduce Nuclear Dangers, Issue Brief Vol. 3, No. 1, May 17, 1999)
- NATO Expansion And The Process Of Nuclear Reductions, - the report of experts of our Center, presented at the conference "NATO Movement To The East - Security Problems For Russia And The CIS States", (St. Petersburg, April 28-29, 1999)
- Jump-START: Retaking the Initiative to Reduce Post-Cold War Nuclear Dangers (A Committee on Nuclear Policy Report, February 25, 1999)
- Relaunching START II, (by Jonathan Dean, The Moscow Times, February 9, 1999)
- Post-Cold War World Demands New Ways to Deal with Warheads, (by Stansfield Turner, Los Angeles Times, Monday, January 11, 1999)
- Russian - U.S. Workshop On Warhead Transparency, the summary of the meeting hosted by the Federation of American Scientists (November 9-10, 1998, Washington, D.C.)
- Kerrey: U.S. Should Cut Nuclear Arms Unilaterally, by Walter Pincus, The Washington Post, Tuesday, November 17, 1998; Page A13)
- Waiting for START III: Arms Control and Submarine Force, (by Amb. Linton F. Brooks, The Submarine Review, October 1998, pp. 25-31).
- Re-Read His Lips: Reduce Arms Now, (by Walter Pincus, The Washington Post, Sunday, October 11, 1998; Page C01)
- Nuclear Disarmament and Transparency Measures - in Russian (by Prof. Anatoli Diakov, presentation on October 8, 1998 at the seminar, organized by the PIR Center), see also Breaking The Deadlock: Confidence Building Measures Can Speed Up Nuclear Arms Reductions, (by Anatoli Diakov and Eugene Miasnikov, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye NG, September 11-17, 1998, pp.1,4)
- Arms Control and Disarmament at a Watershed (by Harald Mueller, Disarmament Diplomacy, Issue No 29, September 1998)
- The Future of Russian-U.S. Strategic Arms Reductions: START III and Beyond, (Cambridge MA, February 2-6, 1998). The Summary Report of the meeting, published in July, 1998)
- Further Cuts of Russian and U.S. Strategic Forces. In Nuclear Arms Reduction. The Process and Problems (Ed. by A.S. Diakov, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, Dolgoprudny, published in English in June, 1998).
- The Alternative to Nuclear Tests, by Zia Mian and Frank von Hippel, The Washington Post, Sunday, May 31, 1998; Page C07
- On "Gray Zones" of Future START III Negotiations -in Russian (by Gennadi Obolenski, Nuclear Security, April, 1998, N 11-12). The beginning of the discussion in NN 6-7 and 9-10.
- Future Directions in Nuclear Arms Control and Verification (by Steve Fetter, The INESAP Information Bulletin, Issue N 15, April 1998, pp.50-54)
- On US approach to implementing Helsinki Joint Statement (Presidents Report on Helsinki Joint Statement, April 23, 1998)
- The Concept of Nuclear Deterrence and START III (by Vladimir Belous, Yaderny Contol , N 2, March-April 1998, pp. 44-52)
- A New Way In Limiting Nuclear Arsenals -in Russian (by Stansfield Turner, Pro et Contra, vol. 3, N 1, 1998)
- Estimated Budgetary Impacts of Alternative Levels of Strategic Forces (a letter of the Congressional Budget Office to Senator Thomas A. Daschle, March 18, 1998)
- Arms Control without Treaties? Rethinking U.S.-Russian Strategic Negotiations in Light of the Duma-Senate Slowdown in Treaty Approval. (by George Bunn and David Holloway)
- All to the Sea (by Kosta Tsipis and Philip Morrison, The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, March/April, 1998, pp. 48-49)
- Is the Treaty on Limiting Antisubmarine Operations Necessary, (by V. Danilin, Morskoi Sbornik, N 2, February, 1998, pp. 7-9)
- UN Role in Regulation of Arms (by Mikhail Kokeyev, Yadernyy Control, v. 37, N 1, January-February, 1998, pp. 23-37)
- START 3 and Verified Nuclear Warhead Dismantlement - in Russian (by Anatoli Diakov, Director, the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, presentation at the conference The Future of Russian-U.S. Strategic Arms Reductions: START III and Beyond, Cambridge MA, February 2-6, 1998)
- What START 3 Could Correspond to Russia's Interests? (by Eugene Miasnikov, the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, presentation at the conference The Future of Russian-U.S. Strategic Arms Reductions: START III and Beyond, Cambridge MA, February 2-6, 1998)
- Ending Nuclear Terror, by Daryl Kimball, Executive Director of the Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers, from National Debate - Point-Counterpoint Commentary and Public Policy News, Winter 1998
- The Risks of Nuclear Deterrence: From Superpowers to Rogue Leaders, by General Lee Butler, National Press Club, February 2, 1998
- The Last Stage of The Cold War, (by Nikolay Novikov, Yevgenii Serebrov and Oleg Shagov, NVO-NG, N 3, January 23, 29, 1998, p.6)
- The Next Nuclear Step: De-MIRV Submarines, (by Jeremy J. Stone and Paul C. Warnke, The Washington Post , Thursday, January 22, 1998; Page A21)
- The Gift of Time: The Case for Abolishing Nuclear Weapons, by Jonathan Schell (nuclear weapons abolition forum, organized by The Nation)
Papers published in 1996 and 1997
- The Future of the Conference on Disarmament, (January 12-23, 1998), Electronic Conference, organized by The Henry L. Stimson Center's Project on Eliminating Weapons of Mass Destruction
Views on the Role of Russian Nuclear Weapons
- Draft Of The Military Doctrine: The Nuclear Factor (by Andrei Gordiyenko, Yaderny Control Digest, Winter 2000, vol.5, N 1, pp. 43-46)
- Better To Exclude Aggression Rather Than Win A War, - in Russian, (by Sergei Brezkun and Stanislav Voronin, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, N 47, December 3, 1999, p. 4).
- Yugoslav Tragedy And NPT Regime, - in Russian, (by Vladimir Belous, Krasnaya Zvezda, December 7, 1999, p. 3)
- At The Threshold Of XXI-st Century Challenges, - in Russian, (by Nikolai Mikhailov, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, N 39, October 8-14, 1999, p. 1,4)
- Strategically Advantageous Asymmetry, - in Russian, (by Stanislav Voronin and Sergei Brezkun, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye, September 17-23, 1999, p. 4)
- Nuclear Weapon Is A Political Weapon, (by Andrey Vaganov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, August 26, 1999, p. 8) - an interview with Academician Boris Litvinov, Chief Designer at the Russian Federal Nuclear Center VNIITF (Chelyabinsk-70)
- Beware, Skunks! The Head Of The SRF Prepares A Nuclear Strike On Chechnya - in Russian, (by Igor Flore, Moskovski Komsomolez, August 26 1999, p. 2). See also: Rocket Forces: A View in the XXI-st Century, - in Russian, (by Alexander Dolinin, Krasnaya Zvezda, August 18, 1999, p. 1,2)
- Preventive Nuclear Strike. Our Strategic Aviation Practiced Missile Strike Against NATO Members At The Last Military Exercises, (Profil, July 12, 1999)
- Maneuvers Show Russian Reliance on Nuclear Arms; Atomic Attack Simulated, (by Michael R. Gordon, The New York Times, July 10, 1999)
- Our Suitcase Is On А Reserve Track - in Russian, (by Kirill Belianinov, Novye Izvestiya, July 2, 1999)
- Russian State's Primary Interest, (by Sergei Sokut, Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye NG, N 17, May 7-13, 1999, p. 1). See also: Limited Nuclear War? Why Not!, (by Pavel Felgengauer, Segodnia, May 6, 1999, pp. 1, 2)
- On Motivation For Military Build-Up In Russia, (by Vladimir Zakharov, Yaderny Control, N 2, March - April, 1999, pp. 67-80)
- Deterrence Strategy Having No Alternatives (by Boris Chugunov, Nezavisimoye Obozreniye NG, N 6, February 19-25, 1999, p. 1), See also: Russia Arms Itself With "Kennedy Criterion" (by Yuri Golotyuk, Izvestiya, February 17, 1999, p. 2)
- Towards Strategic Stability Through a Balance of Force and Transparency, (by Viktor Mikhailov, Yaderny Control, November-December, 1998, N 6, pp. 63-65)
- Why Russia Needs "Topols"? - in Russian, (by Alexander Golz , Intellectual Capital, Issue 2, N 40, October 28 - November 3, 1998)
- Pragmatism Against The Nuclear Fever, (by Boris Semin and Abdul Hakim Sultygov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, October 16, 1998, p. 7)
- The Future of Russian-U.S. Strategic Arms Reductions: START III and Beyond, (Cambridge MA, February 2-6, 1998). The Summary Report of the meeting. Days 1 and 2. Objectives of Future Reductions. Day 3. Tactical Nuclear Weapons.
- The Role of Nuclear Weaponry in Russian Policy. In Nuclear Arms Reduction. The Process and Problems; (Ed. by A.S. Diakov, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, Dolgoprudny, published in English in June, 1998).
- Nuclear Weapons in the Multipolar World (by Sergei Rogov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta, June 5, 1998, p.8)
- How Safe is "The Guarantor of Security" -in Russian (by Vladimir Belous, Nuclear Security, April, 1998, N 11-12)
- Nuclear Weapons as a Foreign Policy Resource: The Search for an Adequacy Criterion (by Ivan Safranchuk, Yaderny Contol , N 2, March-April 1998, pp. 53-56)
- Cold-War Doctrines Refuse to Die. False Alert After '95 Rocket Launch Shows Fragility of Aging Safeguards (by David Hoffman, The Washington Post, Sunday, March 15, 1998; Page A01)
- A Small Bomb for a Small War, (by Alexander Shirokorad, NVO-NG, N 9, March 6-12, 1998, p. 6)
- Nuclear-Free World: Slogans and Reality, (by Vladimir Belous, NVO-NG, # 4, January 30- February 5, 1998, p. 4)
Papers published in 1996 and 1997
- On National Nuclear Strategy, in Russian (by V. Bogomolov and S. Kortunov, International Affairs N 1, January, 1998)
Future of Russian Strategic Forces section has moved here
Nuclear Reductions and De-alerting
- Some Think It's Time To Slow Our Nuclear Response, (by Judith Graham, Chicago Tribune, January 30, 2000)
- Back From The Brinkmanship, (by Mary McGrory, The Washington Post, Sunday, December 12, 1999; Page B01)
- Panel Urges Removing Nuclear Arms From Alert, (The New York Times, Friday, December 10, 1999)
- The Problem Of De-alerting Of The Strategic Forces, - in Russian (by Vladimir Belous, Obozrevatel-Observer, N 8, August, 1999)
- Standing Down Nuclear Weapons, (by Lt. Colonel Piers Wood, USAR (Ret.), Weekly Defense Monitor, Vol. 3, Issue #20, May 20, 1999)
- Statement by Senator Daschle on Enhancing Nuclear Security through De-alerting, CTBT and Moving Beyond START, Congressional Record - 105th Congress, September 21, 1998.
- Russia's Nuclear Force Sinks With the Ruble Economic Crisis Erodes Strategic Arsenal (by David Hoffman, The Washington Post, Friday, September 18, 1998; Page A01)
- Nuclear Risks Mount In Besieged Russia (by Paul Mann, Aviation Week & Space Technology, September 7, 1998, pp.60-64). See also, Russian Armory Remains Huge (by Paul Mann, Aviation Week & Space Technology, September 7, 1998, pp.65)
- The Future of Russian-U.S. Strategic Arms Reductions: START III and Beyond, (Cambridge MA, February 2-6, 1998). The Summary Report of the meeting. Day 3. Modifying Operational Practices.
- Accidental Nuclear War -- A Post-Cold War Assessment (by Lachlan Forrow, Bruce G. Blair, Ira Helfand, George Lewis, Theodore Postol, Victor Sidel, Barry S. Levy, Herbert Abrams and Christine Cassel, The New England Journal of Medicine, April 30, 1998)
- General Eugene E. Habiger, Commander, US Strategic Command, Interview with Defense Writer's Group - 31 March 1998)
- On Some Problems of Control over Strategic Arms (by Gennadi Khromov, Yadernoye Rasprostraneniye, Issue 22, February, 1998, pp 28-33).
- The Case for Strategic Escrow (by Stansfield Turner, The Bulletin of Atomic Scientists, March/April, 1998, pp. 16-17)
- Nuclear Disarmament With Low-Tech Approach (by Jonathan S. Landay, The Christian Science Monitor, Friday, February 20, 1998)
- 'De-Alerting' Nukes Would Imperil U.S. Security, by Kathleen Bailey, Wall Street Journal, January 20, 1998
Papers published in 1996 and 1997
- Unilateral Nuclear Disarmament By Any Other Name Is Still Recklessly Irresponsible; Will Clinton Be Allowed To Do It? (the Center for Security Policy, January 13, 1998)
See also papers at the Back from the Brink web site.
Official START-2 Documents
- START II Resolution of Ratification, May 4, 2000.
- START-2 Documents of September 26, 1997.
Protocol to the START-2 Treaty
Joined Agreed Statement on Minuteman III ICBMs
Primakov and Albright Letters on Early Deactivation.
- Joint Statement on Parameters on Future Reductions in Nuclear Forces, signed on March 21, 1997 (Helsinki Agreement).
- START-2 Treaty
- Protocol on Procedures Governing Elimination of Heavy ICBMs and on Procedures Governing Conversion of Silo Launchers of Heavy ICBMs.
© Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, 1997-2002.