Updated August 18, 2003
Since 1992, our attention was continuously focused on problems of Russian sea based strategic forces, studying an impact of detectability of missile submarines on strategic stability, history of nuclear powered submarine development and problems of nuclear submarine disposal. This page contains the list of publications of the Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies on these issues and abstracts of the papers.
We thank W.Alton Jones Foundation for support of our Center's research projects.
Sea Based Strategic Forces
- Naval Strategic Nuclear Forces (by Eugene Miasnikov) in Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces, (edited by Pavel Podvig, MIT Press, November 2001); See Norman Polmar's review of the book in US Naval Institute Proceedings
This chapter of the book covers the naval strategic forces, presenting the history of the development, design and production of submarines and submarine-based nuclear SLBMs; organization of submarine units at the Northern and Pacific fleets' naval bases; and high-sea patrolling procedures. The chapter also includes technical data on all Soviet/Russian submarines from the first diesel-powered V-67 of the AV-611 (Zulu IV 1/2) project of 1956, up to the two-nuclear-reactors 667 BDRM (Delta IV) armed with 4 to 10 MIRVed warheads 16 R-29RM missiles, the last of which entered service in 1990.
The paper analyzes the degrading state of affairs in Russia's sea based strategic forces. Though more than 1.5 years passed since the paper was published in 1996, the indicated tendencies remain to prevail.
- Future of Russia's Strategic Sea Based Forces - in Russian (by Eugene Miasnikov, Morye (The Sea), # 3, 1996, pp. 66-69).
The headlines of the report presented at the INESAP Conference "Beyond the NPT: A Nuclear-Weapon Free World", held in Muelhime, Germany in November, 1994.
- Russian Sea Based Strategic Forces: Current Problems and Prospects. (by Eugene Miasnikov, In Beyond the NPT: A Nuclear Free World. Preliminary Findings of the Study Group "Beyond the NPT", April, 1995. pp. 57-58).
Detectability of Submarines.
The paper discusses the prospects of START II implementation by Russia; priorities, that should be given in developing Russia's strategic forces; the role of the sea based leg of the nuclear triad, capabilities of a potential adversary to detect, trail and preventively destroy Russian strategic submarines; basic principles of communication with Russian submarines; effectiveness of the sea based strategic forces compared to the deployed on land.
- Future of Russia's Strategic Nuclear Forces: Discussions and Arguments. (by Eugene Miasnikov, Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, Dolgoprudny, 1995).
The author devoted most of his paper to the technical analysis of detectability of submarines. Estimates of SSBN generated noise levels as depending of submarine speed are made. Statistical evaluation of detection ranges of "Los Angeles" class submarines against Russian SSBNs in their patrolling areas is presented.
Navy News & Undersea Technology has published a review of the Center's paper.
The paper presents estimates of detection ranges against Russian SSBNs in different environments such as ocean, shallow and Arctic seas.
- Russia's Strategic Ballistic Missile Submarines: Security from Detection, (by Eugene Miasnikov, Military Journal, Postfactum Analytical Series, # 21, 1994, pp.5-7).
In this article, estimates are made, based on information available in the open technical literature, on the upper limits of the ranges, at which Russian SSBNs can be detected by U.S. attack submarines. In particular, it is shown, that it is implausible, that U.S. attack submarines would be able to trail covertly Russian SSBNs on a day-to-day basis in their patrol areas in the Barents Sea, the Sea of Okhotsk and the Marginal Ice Zones of the Arctic, provided that Russia applies advanced submarine silencing technologies and that the strategic submarines are properly maintained and operated.
- Can Russian Submarines Survive at Sea? The Fundamental Limits of Passive Acoustics. (by Eugene Miasnikov, Science and Global Security, 1994, v. 4, pp. 213-251).
Submarine Collisions and Restrictions on Antisubmarine Operations
See also the answers to frequently asked questions.
In this section, the point is made, that restrictions on strategic defensive systems should take into account the area of antisubmarine warfare as well. The authors of the study propose some specific ideas, that could be considered within the frames of START-3 negotiations.
- Limiting Covert Antisubmarine Operations in SSBN Patrolling Areas (In Nuclear Arms Reduction. The Process and Problems / Ed. by A.S. Diakov, The Center for Arms Control, Energy and Environmental Studies at MIPT, Dolgoprudny, 1997).
The paper analyses the plausible reasons, which lead to a Russian (of "Sierra" class) and a U.S. ("Baton Rouge") submarines collision incident in February, 1992. The author comes to the conclusion, that most likely, the reason was very short detection range of submarines, because of that both submarines operated covertly and did not use other means of detection except passive acoustics. There are no reliable means available to submarines that would allow them to operate both covertly and safely in such a complex environment as shallow waters. The collision illustrates that covert operations of foreign submarines close to Russian naval bases can create dangerous situations that may result in undesirable outcomes.
- Submarine Collision off Murmansk: A Look from Afar. (by Eugene Miasnikov, DACS Breakthroughs, M.I.T., Winter 92/93, v. 2, # 2, pp 19-24; reprinted in The Submarine Review, April, 1993, pp. 6-14).
Nuclear Powered Submarine Disposal
The main problems of nuclear submarine disposal in Russia are discussed. In particular, the conclusion is made, that establishing a governmental agency with the sole responsibility to coordinate disposal projects, distribute the scarce financing and control the spending is desperately needed in order to solve these problems.
- Nuclear Submarine Disposal -in Russian (by A.S. Diakov, V.K. Korobov and E.V. Miasnikov); Nezavisimaya Gazeta - Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye (NG-NVO), # 20, June 7-13, 1997, p. 6.
Differences in existing practices of nuclear powered submarine inactivation and disposal in the U.S.A. and Russia are considered. The current situation in the both countries is presented. Some aspects of the US submarine inactivation and disposal program are outlined and shown to be useful for implementation in Russia. The first priority tasks are formulated. The authors suggest, that the necessary financing should be provided to accomplish these tasks.
- Nuclear Powered Submarine Inactivation and Disposal in the U.S. and Russia: A Comparative Analysis (by A.S. Diakov, V.K. Korobov and E.V. Miasnikov); Proceedings of the International Conference "Radioactive Waste. Storage, Transportation, Recycling. Environment and Human Impact." October 14-18, 1996., St-Petersburg, Russia. In Problems of Material Science, Issue 2 (8), 1997, pp.37-44).
From the History of Nuclear Submarine Development
Comments in an answer to the publication in weekly "Sobesednik" (N 13, April 8, 1999). The magazine published an article, where the expert of our Center was misquoted.
- On submarine accidents -in Russian, (by Eugene Miasnikov)
The author discusses the Yuri Kuznezov's (who is a prominent member of the LDPR faction in the State Duma) arguments on historical lessons of submarine operations against surface ships.
- Role of Submarines in Sea Conflicts, - in Russian (by Eugene Miasnikov, Nezavisimaya Gazeta - Nezavisimoye Voyennoye Obozreniye (NG-NVO), N 24, July 3-9, 1998, p.4)
The paper tells about the development of nuclear powered submarines and ships in the U.S., the U.S.S.R. and other countries from the beginning until these days. The missions and armament of the nuclear powered submarines are discussed. The data on submarine classes, chronology and numbers of built are presented.
- Military Nuclear Powered Ships (by Eugene Miasnikov, In Nuclear Encyclopedia / Ed. by A.A. Yaroshinskaya, Yaroshinskaya Charitable Fund, Moscow, 1996, pp.148-159).
Non-Proliferation of Critical Technologies
The headlines of the report presented at the INESAP Conference "Beyond the NPT: A Nuclear-Weapon Free World", held in Muelhime, Germany in November, 1994. The conclusion is made that, restrictions should be established on access to technologies which are critical for the production of stealthy, highly capable submarines and submarine weapons. Preferably, this would be carried out via the creation of an international regime, similar to MTCR.
- Restricting Submarines (by Eugene Miasnikov, In Beyond the NPT: A Nuclear Free World. Preliminary Findings of the Study Group "Beyond the NPT", April, 1995. pp. 132-133).
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